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Ramat Tamar and Metzad Mazal. The Economy of Neolithic Flint Mining and Production of Bifacials Southwest of the Dead Sea, by D. Schyle (2007).

 

XIV+ c. 222 pages, 48 figures, 48 tables, 94 plates, hardcover
1450 g

 

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Contents List

1. Introduction: 1-2

2. Metzad Mazal: 3-14

2.1. Features and Density of Artefacts
2.2. The Flint Artefacts
2.3. Animal Bones and Bone Tools
2.4. Dating
2.5. Interpretation of the Site

3. Ramat Tamar 1: Knapping Sites and Opencast Flint Mine: 15-90

3.1. Topography and Geomorphology of the Site
3.2. Ramat Tamar 1a and b/c
3.2.1. Field Procedures 3.2.2. Artefact Distributions and Bifacially Worked Pieces: Definition and Classification 3.2.4.3. The Bifacially Worked Pieces: Operational Chains and Reasons of Abandonment 3.2.4.3.1. RT1a: The Advanced Roughouts 3.2.4.3.2. RT1a: Perpendicularly or Bifacially Worked Pieces 3.2.4.3.3. RT1b/c: Bifacially Worked Pieces 3.2.4.3.4. The Bifacials – A Summary 3.2.4.4. Cores 3.2.4.4.1. RT1a: Cores and Initially Struck Pieces 3.2.4.4.2. RT1b-c: Cores and Initially Struck Pieces 3.2.4.5. Flakes and Blades 3.2.4.5.1. Fragmentation 3.2.4.5.2. Blank Dimensions 3.2.4.5.3. Technological Attributes 3.2.4.5.4. Technical Flakes 3.2.4.5.5. Modified Pieces
3.3. Ramat Tamar 1: Opencast Flint Mine and Primary Knapping Site
3.3.1. Morphology of the Plateau-Spur at the Mine 3.3.2. Field Procedures 3.3.3. Excavation Techniques 3.3.4. Sections, Structure of the Dumps 3.3.5. Reconstructed Mining Procedure 3.3.6. Flint Nodule Negatives and the Total Amount of Extracted Flint 3.3.7. Overall Surface Distribution of Artefacts 3.3.8. Surface Distribution of Single Artefact Classes 3.3.9. Distribution of Artefacts within the Dumps 3.3.10. The Artefacts from the Knapping Site and the Dumps 3.3.10.1. Overall Artefact Frequencies 3.3.10.2. Cores, Initially Struck Chunks and Roughouts 3.3.10.2.1. Cores 'Sensu Stricto' 3.3.10.2.2. Initially Struck Pieces 3.3.10.2.3. Roughouts 3.3.10.2.4. Undeterminable Fragments 3.3.10.3. Flakes and Blades 3.3.10.3.1. Fragmentation 3.3.10.3.2. Dimensions 3.3.10.3.3. Technological Attributes 3.3.10.3.4. Primary Elements 3.3.10.3.5. Technical Flakes 3.3.10.3.6. Modified Flakes and Blades 3.3.10.4. Hammerstones 3.3.10.4.1. Hammerstones from Groundstone 3.3.10.4.2. Flint Hammerstones 3.3.10.5. Lithic Artefacts: Summary and Conclusions

4. The Dating of the Mine and its Relation to Metzad Mazal: 91-92

5. The Economic Importance of Neolithic Flint Mining at Ramat Tamar: 93-110

5.1. Extrapolations of the Number of Roughouts Produced at Ramat Tamar
5.1.1. Extrapolation Procedures 5.1.2. The Average or "Ideal" Weight of Exported Roughouts 5.1.3. The Waste Rate of Bifacial Manufacture 5.1.4. The Core Reduction Rate 5.1.5. The Final Steps of Calculation 5.1.6. Extrapolation of Exported Roughouts at Ramat Tamar 1a-c 5.1.6.1. Extrapolations with RT1a and RT1b-c as two Separate Events 5.1.6.1.1. Extrapolation for RT1a 5.1.6.1.2. Extrapolation for RT1b/c 5.1.6.1.3. Discussion 5.1.6.2. Extrapolation with RT1a-c as a Single Event 5.1.7. Extrapolation of exported Roughouts at RT1 5.1.7.1. Preliminaries: Extrapolation of the Total Debitage Weight at RT1 5.1.7.2. Extrapolation of Exported Roughouts 5.1.7.3. Discussion of the Results
5.2. Supply and Demand for Bifacials: Further Extrapolations and Estimations
5.2.1. The Minimum Amount of Flint Required per Finished Bifacial 5.2.2. The Working Time Required for Mining and Production 5.2.3. Estimating the PPNB-Demand for Bifacials
5.3. Conclusions

6. The Sites and Find-Spots of the Surveys in 1978 and 1975: 111-116

6.1. Survey of Sites
6.2. Conclusions

7. Neolithic Flint Mining and Exchange, and Settlement in the Southern Levant: 117-120

8. Bibliography: 121-126

 
 

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