Price: 68,00 €



Flint and Stone Axes as Cultural Markers. Socio-Economic Changes as Reflected in Holocene Flint Tool Industries of the Southern Levant, by R. Barkai (2005).


I-XIV + 410 pages, 126 figs., 26 tables, paperback
1640 g



Contents List

Introduction Part I . About Bifacial Tools. Cultures. and Technological Innovations Technological Review Raw Material Procurement and Extraction. - Bifacial Flaking - Post-polish Flaking - Transversal Blow Technique (Tranchet Axes) - Polishing of Bifacial Tools - Hafting of Bifacial Tools - Flint Bifacial Tool Manufacturing Debris - Breakage Patterns of Bifacial Tools Typological Review - Common Bifacial Tools - Particularly Long Axes - Miniature Bifacial Tools - Metal Bifacial Tools Functional Review - What Bifacial Tools were Used For - Use-wear Analysis in the Southern Levant - How Bifacial Tools were Used Archeological Context of Bifacial Tools - Quarries. Mines and Raw Material Procurement Sites - Workshops - Habitation Sites - Task-specific Sites - Hoards and Caches - Graves and Burials - Megaliths - Megalithic Art Deliberate Destruction of Bifacial Tools Axes. Men and Women Innovations. Inventions and the Meaning of Technological Change - Why Change? - Acceptance and Rejection of Change - What We Can Learn from Technological Change Part II. Bifacial Tools in Holocene southern Levant Samples and Research Methods Definitions - Tool Type - Debris - Blank - Quality of Raw Material - Shaping of the Working Edge - Shaping of the Body - Shape - Length and Cross Sections - Bifacial Ridge - State of Preservation - Discarding Patterns - Maintenance of Bifacial Tools - Metric Data Natufian Site: Hayonim Cave - Tool Characteristics - Belfer Cohen's Analysis (1998) - Hoarding in Hayonim Cave Natufian Site: Einan ('Ain Malaha) - Tool Characteristics - Sarel's Analysis (1995) - Neolithic Tools at Einan - Summary PPNA Site: Netiv Hagdud - Tool Characteristics - Transversal Spalls - Polished Stone Axes at Netiv Hagdud - Nadel's Analysis (1997) - Use-wear Analysis - Summary PPNA Site: Modi'in Shimshoni - Tool Characteristics - Summary PPNA Site: Gesher PPNB Site: Nahal Lavan 109 - Tool Characteristics - Transversal Spalls - Summary PPNB Site: Yiftahel - Tool Characteristics - Polished vs . Tranchet Axes - Summary PPNB Site: Kfar Hahoresh - Tool Characteristics - Summary PPNB Site: Abu Gosh - Tool Characteristics - Summary PPNB Site: Beisamoun - Tool Characteristics - The Surface Collection - The Hula Break - Maintenance Activities - Summary PPNB Site: Mesad Mazal - Tool Characteristics - Summary PPNB Site: Atlit Yam - Tool Characteristics - Summary PN Site (Yarmukian): Sha'ar Hagolan - Tool Characteristics - Summary PN Site (Yarmukian): Hamadiya - Tool Characteristics - Summary PN Site (Yarmukian): Nahal Zehora II - Tool Characteristics - Summary PN Site (Wadi Raba): Nahal Zehora II - Tool Characteristics - Nahal Zehora II Inter-site Comparison (Yarmukhian/Lodian vs . Wadi Raba) - Summary PN Site (Wadi Raba): Nahal Zehora I - Tool Characteristics - Use-wear Analysis - Bifacial Flaking Debris - Summary PN Site (Wadi Raba): Newe Yam - Tool Characteristics - Summary Chalcolithic Site: Natzur - Tool Characteristics - Summary Chalcolithic Site: Giveat Ha'oranim - Tool Characteristics - Use-wear Analysis - Summary Chalcolithic Site: Khirbet El 'Alya East - Tool Characteristics - Summary - Chalcolithic Site: Peqi'in Cave - Tool Characteristics - Summary Chalcolithic Site: Grar - Tool Characteristics - Summary Chalcolithic Site: Bir Safadi. - Tool Characteristics - Summary Chalcolithic Site: Abu Matar - Tool Characteristics - Summary Part III. Holocene Cultures as seen through the Dvnamics of Bifacial Tools Bifacial Tools Over Time: A Tool's Metamorphosis - Frequency of Appearance - About This Chapter - Axes - Adzes - Chisels Bifacial Tools Over Time: Changing Needs - PPNA - PPNB - Early PN (Yarrnukian) - Late PN (Wadi Raba) - Chalcolithic The Larger Picture - Natufian Bifacial Tools - PPNA Bifacial Tools - PPNB Bifacial Tools - PN Yarmukian Bifacial Tools - PN Lodian Bifacial Tools - PN Wadi Raba Bifacial Tools - Chalcolithic Bifacial Tools - The Decline of Bifacial Tools Final Remarks Bibliography Appendix


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